This study provides further clarification of the brain systems supporting DRD in general and in relation to AUDs.”
“Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1 (AKT1), mouse double
minute 2 (MDM2) and p53 play important roles in the development of cancer. We examined whether the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the PTEN, AKT1, MDM2 and p53 genes were related to the risk and severity of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in the Chinese population. Seven SNPs [p53 rs1042522, PTEN rs11202592, AKT1 SNP1-5 (rs3803300, rs1130214, click here rs3730358, rs1130233 and rs2494732)] were genotyped in 593 NPC cases and 480 controls by PCR direct sequencing Selleckchem VX-680 or PCR-RFLP analysis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). None of the polymorphisms alone was associated with the
risk or severity of NPC. However, haplotype analyses indicated that a two-SNP core haplotype (SNP4-5, AA) in AKT1 was associated with a significantly increased susceptibility to NPC risk (adjusted OR = 3.87, 95% CI = 1.96-7.65; P smaller than 0.001). Furthermore, there was a significantly increased risk of NPC associated with the combined risk genotypes (i.e., p53 rs1042522 Arg/Pro + Pro/Pro, MDM2
rs2279244 G/T + G/G, PTEN rs11202592 C/C, AKT1 rs1130233 A/A). Compared with the low-risk group (0-2 combined risk genotypes), the high-risk group (3-4 combined risk genotypes) was associated with a significantly increased susceptibility to NPC risk (adjusted OR = 1.67, 95% CI = 1.12-2.50; P = 0.012). Our results suggest that genetic variants in the PTEN, AKT1, MDM2 and p53 tumor suppressor-oncoprotein network may play roles in mediating the susceptibility to NPC in Chinese populations.”
“Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder MAPK inhibitor involving the selective loss of spinal cord motor neurons. Excitotoxicity mediated by glutamate has been implicated as a cause of this progressive degeneration. In this study we examined two types of receptors, the excitatory alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs) and inhibitory cannabinoid receptor (CB1) with respect to their localization and total expression in spinal cord motor neurons. AMPAR and CB1 represent major excitatory and inhibitory transmission input, respectively, and their expression levels on the plasma membrane have direct relevance to the vulnerability of the motor neurons to glutamatergic excitotoxicity.